Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), is usually a complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Pulmonary thromboembolism develops as a result of obstruction of pulmonary artery and / or branches with pieces that ruptured from the deep vein thrombosis of the leg. Pulmonary thromboembolism and DVT is also referred as venous thromboembolism (VTE) because of two events often remain together. The true incidence is uncertain because of more than half of the patients can be lost before the diagnosis. Despite the many new developments in the last decade on the diagnosis and treatment, PTE is still one of the difficult to diagnose and fatal diseases of lungs. Classical and contemporary approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of PTE were evaluated together in this review.