Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that is produced photochemically in epidermis. It is known that vitamin D involved in the regulation of bone mineralization and calcium-phosphorus balance. However, in recent studies have suggested that vitamin D may have a significant impact in the development of the cell proliferation, differentiation, neurotransmission, neuroplasticity, neurotropic and neuroprotective effects in central nervous system (CNS). For the reason of the effects, it can be considered as a neurosteroid was reported. It was discussed that the level of vitamin D may be associated to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The role of vitamin D and the mechanisms of these diseases will be discussed in the review.