In humans, approximately 95% of the total requirement for vitamin D is synthesized in the skin by the effects of sunlight. The active vitamin D synthesis from 25 (OH) D takes place via the 1-alpha hydroxylase enzyme both in renal and non-renal tissues. The effect of vitamin D on the receptor level is through active vitamin D. Vitamin D receptors are shown in more than 30 tissues. Non-classical effects of vitamin D are grouped under three main headings: Regulation of hormone secretion, regulation of immune function, regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Cardiovascular diseases, renal diseases, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome are mostly researched diseases related with vitamin D. Vitamin D levels were shown inversely to be related with hypertension, obesity, diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. In vitro studies have shown that vitamin D accelerates relaxation in cardiomyocytes and improves diastolic function of the heart. In clinical studies done in patients with chronic kidney disease, poor vitamin D status was shown to be an independent risk factor for coronary vascular calcification, other heart diseases such as heart failure, and cardiovascular mortality. In this review, the cardiovascular and metabolic effects of vitamin D have been reviewed in the light of current knowledge.
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