Objective: Limited data are available on the etiology, clinical approach, treatment and outcome in West syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to document clinical characteristics, etiology and treatment response in children with West syndrome.
Methods: Hospital charts of children who were diagnosed with West syndrome between July-2011 and December- 2013 and who had a follow-up at least 12-month, were reviewed retrospectively.
Results: 38 patients (14 females, 24 males), mean aged 27.1±7.60 months were included. The mean age of seizure onset, interval to diagnosis, and follow-up period were 6.23±4.27 months, 1.36±1.58 months, and 19.3±5.86 months respectively. Perinatal asphyxia (13), tuberous sclerosis (2), cortical dysplasia (2), encephalitis (1), asphyxia due to aspiration (1), congenital cytomegalovirus infection (1), perinatal infarct (1), nonketotic hyperglycinemia (1) and Prader Willi syndrome (1) were the identified causes. The etiology could not be ascertained in the remaining 15 children. Psychomotor development was mildly retarded in 12, moderately retarded in 13, and severely in 13 patients at onset, and did not change significantly at month 12. The initial therapy was synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone in 11, vigabatrin in 17, levetiracetam in 8 and valproate in 2 patients. At 12th month of therapy, 15 patients were seizure-free, 12 patients showed more than 50% decrease in seizure frequency, and remaining 11 patients showed no significant reduction in seizure frequency.
Conclusion: Besides the perinatal asphyxia as most frequent cause, a wide variety of disorders can present as West syndrome. Although, a 12-month-long treatment achieves seizure control in half of the patients, not beneficial effect on psychomotor development was seen.