Objectives: S-100B a protein prevalent in the central nervous system is a peripheral biomarker for blood-brain barrier disruption and neuronal damage. The objective of the study was to investigate the S-100B levels in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.
Materials and methods: A group of 40 patients with SSPE and 40 healthy controls were recruited. Serum S-100B protein concentrations were measured using a commercially available electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) kit, as supplied and according to the manufacturer's standards.
Results: Median S-100B levels were 0.095 ± 0.017 μg/L in patients with SSPE and 0.097±0.019 μg/L in the control group. This difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The patient group was further subdivided into two subgroups according to the presence or absence of brain atrophy. The S-100B levels were 0.096 ± 0.018 μg/L in the subgroup with atrophy and 0.094±0.014 μg/L in the subgroup without atrophy. This difference was also not statistically significant (p>0.05).
Conclusions: Our results suggest that serum S-100B is not a reliable marker for neuronal damage in SSPE.