Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate nosocomial infections (NIs) in intensive care unit (ICU) in terms of site of infection, distribution of pathogens and risk factors for developing infection.
Methods: 80 patients staying for more than 48 hours in the ICU were included in the study. Epidemiologic characteristics of the patients, invasive procedures and other risk factors were noted. Cultures, identification of isolates and antibiotic susceptibility tests were made by standard microbiologic methods.
Results: Of 56 patients who have developed NIs, 26 (50%) had pneumonia, 15 (28.8%) had bloodstream infections and 6 (11.5%) had urinary tract infections. Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.6%), and Acinetobacter spp. (15.6%) were the most frequently isolated microorganisms, respectively. For Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) rate was 91.6%, carbapenem resistance rate was 15.6% and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. carbapenem resistance rates were 60% and 100% respectively. Hemodialysis, enteral nutrition, total parenteral nutrition and prolonged hospitalization for more than 10 days were determined as independent risk factors for developing NI. Additionally Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, length of ICU stay and lenght of hospital stay before ICU were found to be high in the NI group.
Conclusion: Pneumonia is the most common NI and carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacilli was remarkably high in our ICU. It was considered that infection control measures must be applied carefully, invasive procedures should be used in correct indications and we should avoid long-term hospitalization if unnecessary.