Clinical or subclinical hyperparathyroidism is one of the most common endocrine disorders. Excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone is most frequently caused by an adenoma of a parathyroid gland or glands. The conventional surgical approach is bilateral neck exploration, whereas minimally invasive parathyroidectomy has been made possible by the introduction of 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas. Especially in ectopic localizations of parathyroid gland and its lesions preoperative localization have undeniable value. In minimally invasive technique the incision is small, dissection is minimal, postoperative pain is less, and hospital stay is shorter. Minimally invasive technique is easy, safe, with a low morbidity rate and has better cosmetic results lower overall cost than conventional bilateral neck exploration. In this technique greatly aided by intraoperative guidence with a gamma probe, based on in vivo radioactivity counting after administrating 99mTc-MIBI. In pres¬ent article, we reviewed actual literature on the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas and radioguided minimal invasive surgery.