Nontuberculous mycobacteria are ubiquitous environmental organisms that have been recognized a cause of pulmonary infection or disease for over 50 years. Traditionally patients have had underlying risk factors for development of disease; however, to describe of apparently immunocompetent patients involved appears to be possible. The diagnosis of culture-positive all patients for mycobacteria have to evaluate according to 2007 criteria. For patients with disease, combination antibiotic therapy for 12-24 months is generally required for successful treatment. However, there is a poor correlation between in vitro antibiotic susceptibility and in vivo response to antimicrobials. Therefore, the lung diseases due to nontuberculous mycobacteria are an increasing problem for clinicians and are associated with significant obstacles that thwart successful treatment of the diseases due to nontuberculous mycobacteria. Continued progress in diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment of disease will improve the outlook for these patients.